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iQoS

System provides iQoS (intelligent quality of service) which guarantees the customer's network performance, manages and optimizes the key bandwidth for critical business traffic, and helps the customer greatly in fully utilizing their bandwidth resources.

iQoS is used to provide different priorities to different traffic, in order to control the delay and flapping, and decrease the packet loss rate. iQoS can assure the normal transmission of critical business traffic when the network is overloaded or congested. iQoS is controlled by license. To use iQoS, apply and install the iQoS license.

If you have configured QoS in the previous QoS function before upgrading the system to verion 5.5, the previous QoS function will take effect. You still need to configure the previous QoS function in CLI. You cannot use the newest iQoS function in version 5.5 and the newest iQoS function will not display in the WebUI and will not take effect. If you have not configured the previous QoS function before upgrading the system to version 5.5, the system will enable the newest iQoS function in version 5.5. You can configure iQoS function in the WebUI and the previous QoS function will not take effect.

Implement Mechanism

The packets are classified and marked after entering system from the ingress interface. For the classified and marked traffic, system will smoothly forward the traffic through the shaping mechanism, or drop the traffic through the policing mechanism. If the shaping mechanism is selected to forward the traffic, the congestion management and congestion avoidance mechanisms will give different priorities to different types of packets so that the packets of higher priority can pass though the gateway earlier to avoid network congestion.

In general, implementing QoS includes:

  • Classification and marking mechanism: Classification and marking is the process of identifying the priority of each packet. This is the first step of iQoS.

  • Policing and shaping mechanisms: Policing and shaping mechanisms are used to identify traffic violation and make responses. The policing mechanism checks the traffic in real time and takes immediate actions according to the settings when it discovers a violation. The shaping mechanism works together with queuing mechanism. It makes sure that the traffic will never exceed the defined flow rate so that the traffic can go through that interface smoothly.

  • Congestion management mechanism: Congestion management mechanism uses the queuing theory to solve problems in the congested interfaces. As the data rate can be different among different networks, congestion may happen to both wide area network (WAN) and local area network (LAN). Only when an interface is congested will the queuing theory begin to work.

  • Congestion avoidance mechanism: Congestion avoidance mechanism is a supplement to the queuing algorithm, and it also relies on the queuing algorithm. The congestion avoidance mechanism is designed to process TCP-based traffic.

Pipes and Traffic Control Levels

System supports two-level traffic control: level-1 control and level-2 control. In each level, the traffic control is implemented by pipes.

Pipes

By configuring pipes, the devices implement iQoS. Pipe, which is a virtual concept, represents the bandwidth of transmission path. System classifies the traffic by using the pipe as the unit, and controls the traffic crossing the pipes according to the actions defined for the pipes. For all traffic crossing the device, they will flow into virtual pipes according to the traffic matching conditions they match. If the traffic does not match any condition, they will flow into the default pipe predefined by the system.

Pipes, except the default pipe, include two parts of configurations: traffic matching conditions and traffic management actions:

  • Traffic matching conditions: Defines the traffic matching conditions to classify the traffic crossing the device into matched pipes. System will limit the bandwidth to the traffic that matches the traffic matching conditions. You can define multiple traffic matching conditions to a pipe. The logical relation between each condition is OR. When the traffic matches a traffic matching condition of a pipe, it will enter this pipe. If the same conditions are configured in different root pipes, the traffic will first match the root pipe listed at the top of the Level-1 Control list in the Policy > iQoS page.

  • Traffic management actions: Defines the actions adopted to the traffic that has been classified to a pipe. The data stream control includes the forward control and the backward control. Forward control controls the traffic that flows from the source to the destination; backward control controls the traffic flows from the destination to the source.

To provide flexible configurations, system supports the multiple-level pipes. Configuring multiple-level pipes can limit the bandwidth of different applications of different users. This can ensure the bandwidth for the key services and users. Pipes can be nested to at most four levels. Sub pipes cannot be nested to the default pipe. The logical relation between pipes is shown as below:

  • You can create multiple root pipes that are independent. At most three levels of sub pipes can be nested to the root pipe.
  • For the sub pipes at the same level, the total of their minimum bandwidth cannot exceed the minimum bandwidth of their upper-level parent pipe, and the total of their maximum bandwidth cannot exceed the maximum bandwidth of their upper-level parent pipe.
  • If you have configured the forward or backward traffic management actions for the root pipe, all sub pipes that belong to this root pipe will inherit the configurations of the traffic direction set on the root pipe.
  • The root pipe that is only configured the backward traffic management actions cannot work.

The following chart illustrates the application of multiple-level pipes in a company. The administrator can create the following pipes to limit the traffic:

  1. Create a root pipe to limit the traffic of the office located in Beijing.
  2. Create a sub pipe to limit the traffic of its R&D department.
  3. Create a sub pipe to limit the traffic of the specified applications so that each application has its own bandwidth.
  4. Create a sub pipe to limit the traffic of the specified users so that each user owns the defined bandwidth when using the specified application.

Traffic Control Levels

System supports two-level traffic control: level-1 control and level-2 control. In each level, the traffic control is implemented by pipes. Traffic that is dealt with by level-1 control flows into the level-2 control, and then system performs the further management and control according to the pipe configurations of level-2 control. After the traffic flowing into the device, the process of iQoS is shown as below:

According to the chart above, the process of traffic control is described below:

  1. The traffic first flows into the level-1 control, and then system classifies the traffic into different pipes according to the traffic matching conditions of the pipe of level-1 control. The traffic that cannot match any pipe will be classified into the default pipe. If the same conditions are configured in different root pipes, the traffic will first match the root pipe listed at the top of the Level-1 Control list in the Policy > iQoS page. After the traffic flows into the root pipe, system classifies the traffic into different sub pipes according to the traffic matching conditions of each sub pipe.
  2. According to the traffic management actions configured for the pipes, system manages and controls the traffic that matches the traffic matching conditions.
  3. The traffic dealt with by level-1 control flows into the level-2 control. System manages and controls the traffic in level-2 control. The principles of traffic matching, management and control are the same as the one of the level-1 control.
  4. Complete the process of iQoS.

Enabling iQoS

To enable iQoS, take the following steps:

  1. Select Policy > iQoS > Configuration.
  2. Select the Enable iQoS check box.
  3. If you select the Enable NAT IP matching check box in Level-1 Control or Level-2 Control, system will use the IP addresses between the source NAT and the destination NAT as the matching items. If the matching is successful, system will limit the speed of these IP addresses.
    Before enabling NAT IP matching, you must config the NAT rules. Otherwise, the configuration will not take effect.
  4. Click Apply to save the configurations.